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桁架机械手

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:dhkg.com.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械手由主体、驱(qu)动系统和控制系统三个基本部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)组成。按机(ji)器人结构分(fen)(fen)类为直角(jiao)坐标(biao)型,机(ji)械手沿二维直角(jiao)坐标(biao)系移动。主体部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)通(tong)(tong)常采(cai)(cai)用龙(long)门(men)式结构,由y向(xiang)横梁与导(dao)(dao)轨(gui)、z向(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)、十字滑(hua)(hua)座(zuo)(zuo)、立柱、过渡连接(jie)(jie)板(ban)和基座(zuo)(zuo)等部(bu)(bu)分(fen)(fen)组成,z向(xiang)的(de)直线运(yun)动皆为交流(liu)伺服电(dian)动机(ji)通(tong)(tong)过蜗轮(lun)(lun)(lun)减速器驱(qu)动齿轮(lun)(lun)(lun)与y向(xiang)横梁、z向(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)上固定的(de)齿条作滚动,驱(qu)动移动部(bu)(bu)件沿导(dao)(dao)轨(gui)快(kuai)速运(yun)动。移动部(bu)(bu)件为质量较(jiao)轻(qing)的(de)十字滑(hua)(hua)座(zuo)(zuo)和z向(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen),滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)采(cai)(cai)用由铝(lv)合金(jin)拉制的(de)型材(cai)(cai)。横梁采(cai)(cai)用方钢(gang)型材(cai)(cai),在横梁上安装(zhuang)有导(dao)(dao)轨(gui)和齿条,通(tong)(tong)过滚轮(lun)(lun)(lun)与导(dao)(dao)轨(gui)接(jie)(jie)触,整个机(ji)械手都悬(xuan)挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度快,加速(su)度大(da)(da),加减速(su)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)短。当输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)工件时(shi),惯量大(da)(da),因此(ci),伺(si)服(fu)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)电机(ji)(ji)(ji)要有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)能力,支(zhi)撑元(yuan)件也(ye)要有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)刚度及(ji)强度。只(zhi)有(you)这样,才(cai)能使伺(si)服(fu)电动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)满(man)足桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)响应、高(gao)(gao)刚度及(ji)高(gao)(gao)精度要求。在(zai)选择合适伺(si)服(fu)电动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)情况下(xia),根(gen)据(ju)物料运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)距离和(he)运(yun)行节拍(pai),计算出(chu)伺(si)服(fu)系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)位移和(he)轨迹,对(dui)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器PID参数进行动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)态调整。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)根(gen)据(ju)接收到的(de)(de)(de)位移、速(su)度指令,经变化、放大(da)(da)并调整处理后(hou),传递给运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)单元(yuan),通(tong)(tong)过光(guang)纤传感(gan)器对(dui)运(yun)行状态进行实时(shi)检测(ce),在(zai)高(gao)(gao)速(su)搬运(yun)过程(cheng)中(zhong),运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件在(zai)极(ji)短的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)内到达(da)给定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度,并能在(zai)高(gao)(gao)速(su)行程(cheng)中(zhong)瞬间(jian)(jian)准停,通(tong)(tong)过高(gao)(gao)分辩率绝对(dui)式编码(ma)器的(de)(de)(de)插补运(yun)算,控(kong)制(zhi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)误(wu)差和(he)测(ce)量误(wu)差对(dui)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)精度的(de)(de)(de)影响。由于被(bei)(bei)(bei)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)工件不同(tong),质量也(ye)不同(tong),因此(ci),桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)有(you)多种(zhong)规格(ge)和(he)系(xi)列。在(zai)选择时(shi),根(gen)据(ju)被(bei)(bei)(bei)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)工件的(de)(de)(de)质量,加工的(de)(de)(de)节拍(pai)来选取。但机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)手(shou)臂,夹持方式,则根(gen)据(ju)被(bei)(bei)(bei)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)工件的(de)(de)(de)形状、结构(gou)及(ji)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床夹具定(ding)夹方式来设(she)计(见图(tu)2)。

机(ji)(ji)械手能够借助(zhu)可(ke)编程(cheng)序来处理(li)和执行(xing)任务。机(ji)(ji)械手主要由手图 1 臂、回(hui)转装(zhuang)置(zhi)、运(yun)动(dong)部件(jian)(jian)及(ji)驱动(dong)部件(jian)(jian)组(zu)成。通(tong)过对工件(jian)(jian)外(wai)(wai)形或工件(jian)(jian)上(shang)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)支撑点定位(wei)(wei)(wei)夹持(chi)(chi)(chi)工件(jian)(jian)。例如,在汽车(che)发动(dong)机(ji)(ji)加工柔性(xing)(xing)自(zi)动(dong)线物流输送中,桁架机(ji)(ji)械手的(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块会根据缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖、曲轴(zhou)等工件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)外(wai)(wai)形特(te)点,选取(qu)不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)和夹持(chi)(chi)(chi)方式。柔性(xing)(xing)机(ji)(ji)械手上(shang)采(cai)用气缸(gang)和电机(ji)(ji)进行(xing)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)和夹持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块的(de)(de)(de)切(qie)(qie)换(huan)驱动(dong),一套机(ji)(ji)械手可(ke)完成不(bu)同(tong)品种的(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian)搬运(yun)工作。夹持(chi)(chi)(chi)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)块可(ke)根据产品质量和外(wai)(wai)形的(de)(de)(de)大小采(cai)用系列(lie)(lie)化设计,机(ji)(ji)械手上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)(chi)(chi)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)块安装(zhuang)方式相同(tong),针对不(bu)同(tong)系列(lie)(lie)的(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian),只需(xu)(xu)切(qie)(qie)换(huan)相应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)(chi)(chi)定位(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)块即可(ke),满(man)足快速切(qie)(qie)换(huan)的(de)(de)(de)需(xu)(xu)要。这样,当(dang)加工不(bu)同(tong)品种的(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian),只须变换(huan)夹持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块就(jiu)可(ke)实现,提高(gao)了桁架机(ji)(ji)械手的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)(xing)化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机械手输送装置的发展及现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个(ge)(ge)时(shi)代(dai)。就目前而(er)言, 在(zai)国内(nei)二者均有之。刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输送(song)(song)(song)分(fen)为(wei)棘轮棘爪、摆杆、抬起步(bu)(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形(xing)式。随着加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,由(you)(you)(you)其组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)(bu)替代(dai)组(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),它以适应小批量(liang)(liang)多(duo)品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得(de)到市(shi)场(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可,并称其为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种(zhong)以加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),就其输送(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)或输送(song)(song)(song)带依然(ran)为(wei)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)可谓是(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)又(you)有了飞跃,输送(song)(song)(song)形(xing)式以刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手)并存,或纯柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输送(song)(song)(song),即输送(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统全(quan)部由(you)(you)(you)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),这(zhei)是(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),即主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输送(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统也柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心配以桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输送(song)(song)(song),又(you)称之为(wei)敏(min)捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),是(shi)敏(min)捷(jie)制(zhi)造(zao)系(xi)统的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)部分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)采用(yong)(yong)(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输送(song)(song)(song)后,输送(song)(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)可根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)随意(yi)改(gai)变(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang)(zhuang)位置(zhi)不再(zai)象刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输送(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输送(song)(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)或步(bu)(bu)距(ju)倍(bei)数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要求进行严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang)(zhuang),且输送(song)(song)(song)速度也可根据生产节拍及(ji)(ji)输送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)离而(er)改(gai)变(bian)。而(er)真正体现柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要一(yi)面是(shi),当被加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产品(pin)改(gai)变(bian)后,输送(song)(song)(song)部分(fen)不会(hui)不适应而(er)全(quan)部更换,只(zhi)要改(gai)变(bian)输送(song)(song)(song)程(cheng)序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手局部结构即可。采用(yong)(yong)(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输送(song)(song)(song)更先进的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面是(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)整体的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化(hua)、智(zhi)能(neng)化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协调统一(yi)。因此,桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手才在(zai)当今(jin)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)上越来越多(duo)地(di)被采用(yong)(yong)(yong),使整个(ge)(ge)生产过程(cheng)通过信(xin)息(xi)流(liu)(liu)系(xi)统进行控(kong)制(zhi)。在(zai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和运(yun)输过程(cheng)中,所需各种(zhong)信(xin)息(xi)收集、处理(li)、反馈,并通过电子计(ji)(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或其他控(kong)制(zhi)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(液压(ya)、气压(ya)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)等),对(dui)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或运(yun)输设备实行分(fen)级(ji)控(kong)制(zhi)。信(xin)息(xi)流(liu)(liu)系(xi)统分(fen)为(wei)由(you)(you)(you)中央(yang)管理(li)计(ji)(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流(liu)(liu)控(kong)制(zhi)计(ji)(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元(yuan)控(kong)制(zhi)计(ji)(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以及(ji)(ji)信(xin)息(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)。目前,汽(qi)车制(zhi)造(zao)业中加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体、缸盖(gai)及(ji)(ji)曲轴等大批量(liang)(liang)关键零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大都采用(yong)(yong)(yong)了桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输送(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国内外的(de)差(cha)距

当下(xia),我(wo)国(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)发展很快,技(ji)术水(shui)平有了(le)很大(da)(da)的(de)(de)提高,与国(guo)外(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)差距变得(de)越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)小,甚至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与国(guo)外(wai)(wai)相比已经没(mei)有什么(me)差距。特别是国(guo)家重(zhong)大(da)(da)科(ke)技(ji)专项(xiang)的(de)(de)开(kai)展,为(wei)我(wo)国(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)上档(dang)次(ci)上水(shui)平提高了(le)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)速度(du),成绩(ji)显(xian)而易(yi)见(jian)。加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)这几(ji)年发展的(de)(de)特别快,但柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)技(ji)术水(shui)平和(he)档(dang)次(ci),较(jiao)国(guo)外(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)差距还很明显(xian),国(guo)外(wai)(wai)采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输送的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)较(jiao)为(wei)普遍,而国(guo)内(nei)却为(wei)数不(bu)多,国(guo)内(nei)庞大(da)(da)的(de)(de)汽(qi)车(che)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)市(shi)场所采(cai)用(yong)的(de)(de)带(dai)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输送的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),大(da)(da)多从国(guo)外(wai)(wai)进口(kou)。如无(wu)锡柴油发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)缸体(ti)缸盖柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)由德国(guo)GROB公司总承包(bao),由BZ800加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)、试(shi)漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)(zai)线(xian)检(jian)具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨(mo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)组成。输送采(cai)用(yong)空(kong)中桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道(dao)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)输送。仅以汽(qi)车(che)制造业而言,国(guo)内(nei)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输送的(de)(de)屈指可数。大(da)(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)和(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)等(deng)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)出(chu)了(le)该方面的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),并在(zai)(zai)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)实(shi)际中得(de)到了(le)应(ying)用(yong)。图4是大(da)(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)DKX017缸体(ti)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)。加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两(liang)种(zhong)缸体(ti),分别为(wei)四缸和(he)六(liu)缸,其输送采(cai)用(yong)空(kong)中桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)两(liang)端为(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道(dao)等(deng)形(xing)式。桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)两(liang)个,一个上料,一个下(xia)料。它(ta)的(de)(de)成功,标志着我(wo)国(guo)国(guo)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)由桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输送的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)开(kai)始向国(guo)际水(shui)准(zhun)迈进。

上(shang)述提及的(de)(de)(de)只是数量上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)比较,其实真(zhen)正的(de)(de)(de)原因(yin)还是国(guo)(guo)产(chan)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)技术水平与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)有着一定的(de)(de)(de)差距。柔性(xing)加工自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)采用的(de)(de)(de)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou),也是从(cong)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)进(jin)口的(de)(de)(de)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)内还没有专门生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)厂家。如今(jin),国(guo)(guo)内巨一等一些(xie)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)厂家的(de)(de)(de)涌出(chu),为国(guo)(guo)产(chan)柔性(xing)加工自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)带来了(le)希望,进(jin)而(er)(er)缩小了(le)与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)在生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)方面的(de)(de)(de)差距,国(guo)(guo)产(chan)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)在柔性(xing)加工自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)应用也越(yue)(yue)来越(yue)(yue)多,从(cong)而(er)(er)打破国(guo)(guo)产(chan)市(shi)场被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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